SHORT-LIVED ZAND DYNASTY 377 Gulf. The trade was at first miserably smaD, only one ship being despatched annually from Bombay, and until 1790 the establishment was maintained at an annual loss ; but from that date onward trade increased by leaps and bounds. The Expedition Against Basra, A.H. 1189-1190 (1775- 1776).—Karim Khan engaged in an expedition against Basra, mainly in order to occupy and pay his army; though he put forward the flimsy pretext that pilgrims to the sacred sites were taxed. The place was taken by Sadik Khan, brother of the Regent, after a blockade of thirteen months. He treated the citizens justly, and was particu- larly friendly to the British Resident. No attempt seems to have been made by the Turks to recover Basra, but upon the death of Karim Khan a few years later it was evacuated by the Persians and fell again into their hands. Zaki Khan.—Upon the death of the Vakil in 17793 furious rivalries and ambitions "were again unchained. Not only was the Zand family weakened by family feuds and assassinations, but the long struggle for power between it and the Kajar dynasty was renewed-—a struggle which ended in the victory of the Xajars, who have ever since remained the ruling family of Iran. Besides his brother Sadik Khan, the captor of Basra, Karim Khan had also a half-brother on his mother's side named Zaki Khan. This man had once rebelled and had been pardoned. He was subsequently appointed to command an expedition to Damghan, where Husayn Kuli Khan,1 Kajar, had revolted. This rising he quelled with barbarous cruelty, fastening his prisoners to stakes and then ccplanting" them head foremost in the ground. He had displayed similar ferocity elsewhere, and in consequence his name was both feared and execrated all over Persia, After the death of Karim Khan, Zaki Khan at once usurped the government. A number of the Zand chiefs seized the Shiraz fort and declared for Abul Fatteh Khan, son of the Vakil. Zaki Khan, who was supported by his nephew Ali Murad, also declared for Abul Fatteh, and on the strength of this made terms with the chiefs in die fort; 1 Husayn Kali Khan was the father of Fath Ali Shah.